Karl Marx on Nature and Trains
Categories: [digital geography]
Excerpts Tags: [labor], [nature]
Karl Marx on what can be considered nature and the labor associated with transforming nature.
"Nature builds no machines, no locomotives, railways, electric telegraphs, self-acting mules etc. These are products of human industry; natural material transformed into organs of the human will over nature, or of human participation in nature. They are organs of the human brain, created by the human hand; the power of knowledge, objectified. The development of fixed capital indicates to what degree general social knowledge has become a direct force of production, and to what degree, hence, the conditions of the process of social life itself have come under the control of the general intellect and been transformed in accordance with it. To what degree the powers of social production have been produced, not only in the form of knowledge, but as immediate organs of social practice, of the real life process."
From Karl Marx's book Grundrisse page 703, the Penguin version published in 1973.